Ammonia is manufactured from fossil fuels such as natural gas, and almost all of it is currently used for chemical fertilizers. In response to the global trend toward carbon neutrality in recent years, it is a zero-emission fuel that does not contain carbon atoms and does not emit CO2 when burned; it has a high hydrogen density (121kg-H2/m3); and it is possible to construct a large-scale value chain using existing infrastructure. Therefore, it is attracting attention as a new fuel that supports energy security.

Low-carbon ammonia

Low-carbon ammonia is ammonia, in which CO2 emissions are reduced in the manufacturing process. It is classified into “green ammonia” and “blue ammonia,” depending on the manufacturing process and the degree of reduction in CO2 emissions.
Green ammonia
Ammonia synthesized from hydrogen produced by renewable energy. Renewable energy includes solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, and biomass power.
Blue ammonia
Ammonia produced from fossil fuels and the CO2 emissions generated in the manufacturing process are shown to be suppressed by CCS (Carbon dioxide Capture & Storage) , EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery), etc.

Proposals for Toyo's social implementation

1. To reduce manufacturing and transportation costs

Social mounting as an alternative to fossil fuels, which has traditionally been used, requires cost reductions in the supply chain. TOYO can propose further cost reductions through optimum design based on its technological capabilities backed by its extensive EPC experience as a leading contractor for more than 80 ammonia plants and a partnership with the U.S. company KBR, a licensor, for more than 50 years.


TOYO announced that TOYO and the JGC Holdings Corporation reached an alliance agreement with the aim of speedily demonstrating to fuel ammonia business operators enhanced proposal capabilities and competitiveness in April, 2022. Through the expanded use of fuel ammonia, TOYO will contribute to the realization of a decarbonized society by the receipt of orders and execution of engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) projects for fuel-ammonia manufacturing plants and ammonia receiving terminals, starting from feasibility studies (FS) and front-end engineering design (FEED) .

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2. CO2 monetization

The use of CO2 generated during production by CCUS can reduce power generation prices by monetizing the amount of CO2 emitted during production. TOYO has been working on CO2-EOR/CCS since the 1980s, and it can be realized based on actual results and knowledge. It can also contribute to improving profitability through the integration of underground and ground facilities in cooperation with Baker Hughes in the United States.

3. To secure a stable supply base in a decentralized manner

If ammonia is considered as the main fuel for thermal power plants, it is necessary to secure distributed procurement and stable supply sources with geopolitics in mind. Through its extensive experience of more than 80 ammonia plants, TOYO has good relationships with many customers and contributes to the enhancement of energy security by building a value chain with distributed, stable suppliers.

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